Diagnostic Test Directory

Molecular Genetics Laboratory

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Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (SLC25A22)


    Collect whole blood in a purple top (EDTA) tube (preferred).

    Volume Required

    5 ml whole blood or 3 ug extracted DNA

    Minimum Required

    3 ml whole blood


    Refrigerate sample until shipment. Send the sample at room temperature with overnight delivery for receipt Monday through Friday within 24 hours of collection.


    Whole blood can be refrigerated until shipment.

    Unacceptable conditions

    Heparinized specimens, severely hemolyzed specimens, frozen, clotted or possibly commingled specimens, blood in non-sterile or leaky containers, mislabeled or inappropriately labeled specimens.

    Specimen Handling

    Do not heat, freeze or centrifuge blood before shipment. Refrigerate sample until shipment.

Days Performed

Mon - Fri 9:00am to 4:00pm


4-6 weeks



Disease Information

Clinical Features:

Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (EIEE) is a severe age-related epileptic encephalopathy which is also known as Ohtahara syndrome. The characteristics of EIEE syndrome are: onset in early infancy (neonatal period through the first few months of life); tonic spasms associated with suppression bursts EEG pattern; medically intractable seizures and severe psychomotor retardation. Mutations in at least 4 genes have been identified in EIEE individuals including ARX (EIEE-1), CDKL5 (EIEE-2), SLC25A22 (EIEE-3), and STXBP1 (EIEE-4). Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-3 (EIEE3) is caused by mutations in the SLC25A22 gene. Patients typically present with epileptic spasms and focal seizures associated with suppression bursts beginning in the first days of life, microcephaly, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation. Imaging studies show cerebellar hypoplasia, callosal dysmorphia, abnormal gyration of temporo-parietal regions and abnormal myelination of temporal poles.

Molecular Genetics:

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-3 (EIEE3) is an autosomal recessive condition that is caused by mutations in the SLC25A22 gene. The SLC25A22 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5. Homozygous missense mutations have been typically identified in this gene.

Test Methods:

PCR amplification and sequence analysis is performed on the coding exon including splice junctions. The patient’s gene sequence is compared to a reference sequence. Sequence variants are classified as mutations, variants of unknown significance or benign variants unrelated to disease. Variants of unknown significance may warrant further studies in the patient and other family members. Mutations in promoters, deep intronic regions and other regulatory regions will not be identified with this assay. Sensitivity: This assay has greater than 99.7% sensitivity for detecting substitution variants and indels. Reference Range: Copy number variations and mutations within the promoter regions, deep intronic regions or regulatory elements would also not be detected by this assay.

Related Tests:

Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Panel – ARX, CDKL5, MEF2c, STXBP1, SLC25A22, SRPX2 Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (Sequence) – STXBP1 Rolandic Epilepsy (Sequence) – SRPX2 Atypical Rett Syndrome (Sequence and MLPA) – CDKL5 Infantile Spasms (Sequence) – ARX MEF2C Related Mental Retardation, Stereotypic Movements, Epilepsy, and/or Cerebral Malformations (Sequence and MLPA) – MEF2C


Test results with interpretation will be mailed and/or faxed to the referring physician or send out lab following completion of the test. Additional reports will be provided as requested.


The clinical utility of the assay is to support a clinical diagnosis of the disease, facilitate genetic counseling, and assess the risk to other first degree relatives and to facilitate testing of at - risk family members.

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